The Khazar Heritage
© 1996 The Kaz-Khan and the Khazar organisation.
This is a comprehensive and serious account
of a persistent and substantial oral tradition, which by us is considered
to be the historical balance and a
final historical declaration from the Khazars. This regrettably overthrows
many of the current scientific and pseudo-scientific contexts,
and questions the present traditional state of esp. historical
and archaeological science regarding Khazar history.
There has been a lot of routine,
predjudice, ethno-centrism and even propagandistic racism
falsifying or more or less consiously misinterpreting the Khazar
history from esp. the sides of nazism, zionism and stalinism. Our
choosen silence for more than half a millenium has
of course given room for both romantic and hostile speculation,
but also for major faults within serious historical science.
This and the presence of political
thaw esp. in the former Soviet Union and a growing global general consensus
of democracy have both forced us and made it more opportune to speak
out and reveal the historical truth of the Khazars.
We have now decided to do that.
However we will not relate or argue
with traditional science of history or false propaganda. The main features
of Khazaria, we regard, is well documented by Dunlop and Koestler
(se below!). We will concentrate on
those parts of the oral tradition, which has not yet been
validated by science or where views differ. Hence
we have developed a strategy and a goal for this historical task,
Khazar tradition in relation to and considering contemporary
scientific theories and conclusions in producing a working and
workable hypothesis and model for the interpretation of the history of Khazars."
The Jewish Kingdom of
At it“s crest of military and political
power the Khazar state seems to have exercised excellent talents
mainly comprising social and cultural features like:
- A Hellenistic open governmental
approach to ethnical, lingual and religious variety. A
Khazar official could be of ethnical Greek, Turkish, Jewish and
probably Slav and Rūs origin, as well as a confessional
Christian, Jew, Muslim or maybe just pagan and probably
multi-lingual as well. The Khazar community comprised all this variety, thus
seemingly being a part of the Hellenistic sphere.
- A military power consisting
of a mounted force and fortified garrisons with an organisation,
tactics and strategy comprising and merging elements from ancient
Macedonia, Persia, Byzans and "turkish tribes". Thus constituting the sole
definite bastion against Arab-Islamic, Byzantine-Christian and
Rūs expansion through this area of cultural
- Well developed diplomatic and
merchantry relations, thus constituting a
"neutral" and independent intermediary arbitrator to
most of the parties around, most of the time.
- The clan of royalty and nobels
is documented as consisting of mostly confessional Jews.
The birth of Khazaria
It has not been
proven common among dispersed and "anarchistic"
Turkish-Mongol tribes, or even more consensed and condensed
conglomerates, to exercise this kind of governmental skills, nor
cultural tolerance. What we usually see is more of a talent and a
remarkable and certain predilection for terror and bestiality (the
post-Genghis era maybe in some respects excluded). Why would
Khazars relatively sudden become able to exercise such excellent talents
in politics, trade and warfare? Already from the very beginning
of the Khazar kingdom this is at hand. Could this be an example
of the acts of God or "learning by doing"? Hardly so!
This could, at that time, only be the
heritage of Hellenism! How could possibly then a nomadic and
pagan Turkish tribe, so easily and completely, adopt
"hellenistic" and "jewish" manners? They
didnt! The main part of the Khazar people ("the black
legged ones" - kara-süjek/Kara-Khazars) was, of course, at
all times turkish, tribal, illiterate, pagan and nomadic
horsemen (an excellent source of soldiery to a mounted army).
The ruling class ("the white legged ones" -
aq-süjek/Aq-Khazars) of nobels (taidsi), however, the very
nucleus of the rising and formed Khazar state, were the bearers
and mediators of the Hellenistic culture. They were litterate,
had strong relations to the Hellenistic world and were well
organized. Because they were Jews (in the meaning "israelite" offspring
with "jewish" traditions, knowledge and relations)!
The nucleus of the fully developed Khazar
empire is documented as consisting of mostly confessional Jews.
The political mythology, however, tells us about a conversion
and there is a story about the Khazar king (Khagan/Kaz-Khan) and
his retinue, after a principal debate between representants of
Christianity, Islam and Judaism, suddenly decide to get
circumcised. This is a good example of clever Khazar politics and
conscious diplomatical propaganda! With growing international
impact they knew their personal faith and family traditions would have
been exposed and politically exploited by their eventual
competitors. They decided to spread a story of well considered
and politically motivated conversion, with the understatement
that others also very well could (and should?) follow. Possibly
they even got circumcised, hence practically, merely as a symbol
and confirmation of their Jewish origin and faith.
So where did those Jews come from? Well,
according to their familiarity to Hellenistic and Jewish manners, tradition and
culture they plausibly came from the south. At that time the
Hellenistic sphere was evaporating to the benefit of local kings
and chiefs, who very often seem to have been of a general
Hellenistic (Macedonian, Persian, Armenian etc. nobel and
military) rather than of local origin. The same seems to have
happened to this outskirt of the former Hellenistic Empire. A
clan of conative and vindictive "jewish" former
officials and mercenary officers of the Hellenistic Empire
managed to develope and maintain a leading role among the Turkish
tribes. These "Jews" alone had a ready, refined and
winning concept for the guvernmental and military management as well
as the motive of founding a relatively enlightened
These "jewish" soldiers and
mercenaries may well be a remainder of the descendants to the
defenders of the 2nd last Jewish Kingdom and the last Holy Temple
of Jerusalem. Thus extremely well motivated of restoring a Jewish Kingdom!
Whoever they were, they evidently
succeeded, forming the latest jewish kingdom, the Jewish
Kingdom of Khazaria!
rise and consolidation of Khazaria
In charge of an excellent mounted
force, equipped with an excellent political capacity
and with extraordinary relations to Jewish and Greek interests in
the Hellenistic sphere the Jewish Aq-Khazars continued in
expanding and consolidating the Khazar Kingdom. They proved to be
the best employer around for Turk horsemen from the steppes,
hungry for warrior esteem and wealth, which made way for a large
scale of more or less voluntary subordination of all Turk tribes
around, including Kara-Khazars, Oghuzz, Pecheneggs, Bulgars and
The geographical expansion did not
decrease until the Khazar empire covered an area from
Hungary-Austria in the west to the Aral sea in the east,
Kiev-Upper Volga in the north and the Black and Caspian seas and Caucasus
in the south. They installed counts (the so called "Jewish
princes") in Hungary-Austria, they taxated Goths in Crimea
and Greek-Byzantine towns and landlords at the northern shores of
the Black sea, they taxated Rūs merchants and raiders and all
other trading through their territory. They established a net of
trading posts on their own behalf along the Volga, Don, Donets
and Dnepr river systems, as well as along the caravan-roads, with immigrated
refugee Jews as a favoured merchantry and trusted administrators
and small garrisons of Turks for protection, and they fortified their
The mounted forces, with a soldiery of
mainly Turk and pagan origin, could at times and when accounted
for, show a disastrous fiercefulness and cruelty to the enemies
of Khazaria. On the other hand the same forces, subordinated to the
Aq-Khazar generals and officers, were probably the most
disciplined, as well as tactically and strategically the most
potent martial power at that time and in that region. On the
other hand Khazar officials were often consulted as diplomatic
emissars and mediators by all the political powers surrounding
Khazaria. Khazaria and Khazars were at that time both highly
respected and feared, with good reason.
Along with warfare, diplomacy, taxation
and trade there was of course a great lingual and cultural as
well as religious and ideological exchange. The Jewish Khazar
Kingdom comprised a manyfold variety in combination with
"hellenistic" openness in all aspects of human cultural
life. A Khazar official could be of Turk, Slav, Greek, Rūs, Arab,
Goth, Roman and Magyar ethnical origin. They then just had to be
multilingual and capable of communicating with all these
"nationalities". General Turkish, "lingua
cumana", was surely used among the Turk tribes, as Roman-Greek
in the Black sea region and Hebrew among Jewish scholars and
rabbis. Every subgroup surely maintained their native tongue, but
the demand for a general and common language gradually increased.
In charge of trade, at these crossroads
of mercantile exchange, were the Jews, wether they were related
to the Aq-Khazar nobility or refugees from Byzans or the
Caliphates in the south. They were the civil servents of the Khazar empire,
administrating governmental tasks such as regulating settlement,
trade, taxation, passage and migration. They also maintained
great advantages and benefits as the most favoured merchantry.
All this made the Jewish merchantry to the most critical and
important part in all trade within Khazaria, as well as in trade exchange
with external parties. Thus there were of course a lot of reasons
not to speak Hebrew with their various counterparts. The need for
a common trading and administrative language was accute.
Trading and administrative Jews and
Jewish Khazars, and possibly other officials as well, in
cooperation and interchange with Frankic, Hungarian-Austrian,
Slavic, Rūs, Gothic and Greek merchantry, had already begun to develope
a common "lingua comerca" consisting of mainly
early "pre-German" influences from Gothic, Austrian, Rūs and
"lingua franca", spoken by Franks and Radhanite
merchant Jews. A major influx of Hebrew, Slavic and some "lingua
cumana", of course, was also merged into this
"synthetic" and, in many respects, neutral language.
This language also had a major impact on
the construction, by Benedictine monks, of the high-german
"synthetic" language to be used in the German Roman empire.
It was later, by the definite evaporation of Khazaria, to be
maintained and further refined by the Jewish merchantry, refugees
from Khazaria, as a profane speech and fully developed and re-influenced
by high-german in the middle ages to "Jiddisch (eng. Yiddish)",
that is "Jewish".
Khazaria, at the point of
Khazaria had most
of the time alliances with all the surrounding parts.
Those sometimes were broken by competition, hostility, betrayel
and war. There was a long period of harmony with Byzans
resulting in a Khazar contribution to the royalty with at
least two emperors and two empresses, of Khazar ethnical and/or
cultural origin. There was also a forthgoing interaction with Rūs
resulting in mutual and joint trading posts along the river
systems between the poles Kiev in Khazar-Rūsia in the south and Birka in
the northly Sweden (Svithjodh) and a Khazar contribution to the blood and
culture of the first Khagans/Tsars of Russia, obviously since the queen of Rūsia, the
christian Khazar noble lady, Helga (Sancta) and, by her adopted son, the Khazar prince Svjatoslav
(Svithjodho-Slav). There was also a great intermingling with the arab caliphates.
However, there regrettably were a
forthgoing polarization within the Khazar society due to
vast priviliges granted to the Jewish merchantry and the general
islamisation of the common tribes esp. the Kara-Khazars. The Khazar-Rūs defectors
also grew in competitive rivalry and discontent to their expected
submission to Aq-Khazars and priviliged Jewry. This four-polar tension gradually
grew and went accute making the Khazar state unable to defend
itself, to any major extent, when the Khazar-Rūs Khagan
Svjatoslav exploitingly challenged it. Jew merchants, Aq-Khazar
nobels and muslim Kara-Kazars seized to feel as a united corpse
and were unable to keep the forces together and consensus dissappeared
with the winds of the steppes.
The very openess and liberal governmental
attitude within the Khazar state proved disastrous for the
empire, when misused by the crystalized interestgroups of
Merchant Jewry, Muslim Kara-Khazars and emigrant competitors. However
neither all Khazars, nor the core Khazar Kingdom were conquered
for hundreds of years.
All the western and northern parts of the
larger empire were incorporated with the emerging Russian
state and most of the inhabitants, wether pagan or muslim,
were to be christened by force in due time, but most of
the Jews showed stubborn and managed to stay jewish. Left without
their Khazar leadership the former Khazar subjects were slavisised
or judaised and deprived of any Khazar identity. In an
attempt to escape Russia and keep their sovereignity, small
detachments of Khazars with their families, esp. from the
splinted and disrupted army, fled westward to Crimea, Roumania
and Hungary. A northern group, penetrating Russia, went out of
reach to Preussia/Lithuania.
Left as a vanishing Jewish Khazar Kingdom
was the surviving royal clan and nobility of the Khazars, accompanied by
only a minor part of the former enormous mounted force, taking stand
just north of and within the Caucasus, but seemingly without any substantial
political and economical power and with a planned liquidation as
the only realistic option. They then decided to liquidate the project of a Jewish
empire or state, but with reason and careful planning.
Capital and trusted families were sent
out to Byzans and the old trading routes along the
Dnepr/Dvina river system. This was very conveniant because of the
possibilities of trading and the eventual protection and aid from resident
Jews and Jewish Khazars, their relatives. The main part of the
army and nobility were gradually moved to Crimea, thus taking
charge of and merging with residents and forming the so called
"Tartars of Crimea".
A Khazar diaspora
Aq-Khazars were now Jewish traders and Tartars,
consolidating their capital and network of traders. Great
obstacles to their striving were of course the plague, the mongol
invasion and the "byzantification" of Russia, ending
with Ivan "The Terrible". They survived to some extent
by cooperating with the Golden Horde Khaganate and the Osmans of
Turkey. Their last great martial effort was burning Moscow, with
the Tartars of Crimea, as a revenge, in 1571.
There still was a core of nobel Khazar
families who among them secretely maintained a virtual Khazar
kingdom and identity. They decided to definitely move north, along
the old trading route and collect their capital and vitalize the trading.
They ended up in Preussia/Lithuania and spread their interests
and residence, fairly quickly, to all over the southern shores of the
Baltic Sea, through Poland, Pommern and Mecklenburg-Schwerin,
merging with Jewry, christian nobility and merchantry. They
eventually got related to the nobel and royal families of both Germany
Besides traditional trading and manoring
they funded esp. Swedish warfare against Russia and
Catholic Germany for hundreds of years. The jewish families got
privileges as "favoured jews", as funders and suppliers
to the Swedish armies. The christians cultivated their manors and
contributed with supply and officers. Esp. the Jewish Khazars
also acted as mediators and interpreters like e. g. between King
Carl XII and Turkey. Several Swedish Kings thus became more
and more in dept to some Khazar families.
The Swedish Kings then granted the Jewish
Khazars vast priviliges in economics, trading and residency. They
took many Khazar nobels, some even Jewish, in their service as high
ranking officers for battle and logistics. By the mid 18th century
some of the christian nobel Khazar families lived in Sweden and by the
end of the century several of the Jewish did as well. They were still main
funders and suppliers, mainly to the Navy, they represented Turkey
in maintaining the consulate and then they mostly contributed to the
general economical and industrial development, and banking and finance in special,
of the 19th century Sweden.
Now we have decided to step
forward and claim respect and recognition for the Khazars, the
virtual Khaganate and the ancient kingdom Khazaria.
Look for Dunlop and Koestler and other
historical reference at KIC!
The Khazaria historical
Please look for
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