Fernão Lopes - the first Robinson
The Scottish sailor Alexander Selkirk is generally considered to be the model for Defoe's novel character Robinson Crusoe. Selkirk was washed ashore after a shipwreck on the uninhabited island of Juan Fernandez off the coast of Chile. But it is likely that Defoe had some of his inspiration from the story of a sailor who lived a century and a half before Selkirk. This is the story of Fernão Lopes, the first Robinson Crusoe.
The year was 1512. The indefatigable Affonso d'Albuquerque had completed a successful raid on Malacca and was heading back towards Goa. Despite the unparalleled success in Malacca, "the Great Affonso" was in low spirits. A number of his ships had been lost in a storm, and a great treasure of slaves and goods belonging to the king of Portugal was lost. Affonso had also been informed that fort Benastarim in Goa had been recaptured by the Moslems. To make matters still worse, a number of the Portuguese noblemen to whom he had left the ruling of the conquered town of Goa in 1510, had converted and were now acting for the enemy. The conquest of Goa was Affonso's most highly valued accomplishment, and he was not prepared to let it come to nothing. His fleet was still powerful enough to force a solution by negotiation. Rasul Khan, commander at Goa, accepted Affonso's demands and surrendered. But he was concerned about what fate would come to those Portuguese who would now be at Affonso's mercy. His concern was well-founded. Not only had the men deserted, they had collaborated with the Moslem enemy and in some cases even converted to Islam. The Iberians had long and bitter experience of fighting the Moors. For a Portuguese nobleman to cooperate with the Moslems was considered the ultimate crime. Rasul Khan managed to exact from Affonso a promise to spare the lives of his countrymen. Affonso grudgingly agreed to this, and Benastarim was returned to him. Affonso detested those of his countrymen whom he saw as traitors to their king as well as to God, and he would have preferred to have them executed then and there. But even the high-handed Affonso felt bound by a promise. He would let them live, but on his conditions. For three whole days the traitors suffered the most gruesome torture. Their right hands were cut off, together with the thumb of the left hand. Their ears and noses were cut off, their hair and their beards pulled out. More than half of them perished from the torture. One of the few survivors was Fernão Lopes, the leader of this group of noblemen who had betrayed Affonso. Lopes was left to manage as best he could, despised by his countrymen and reluctantly forsaken by his former Moslem friends. For three years he remained in Goa, a miserable beggar.
Affonso d'Albuquerque died in 1515. Contrary to his insistent wish, he was buried in Goa. He had wished for his ashes to be returned to Portugal, but his superstitious countrymen would have it otherwise. As long as the bones of the great conqueror remained in Goa, the town would not be lost. In the spring of 1516, while the town was in a state of commotion following the death of Affonso, Fernão Lopes managed to steal on board a ship bound for Lisbon. The stowaway was quickly discovered, but the captain had no choice other than to take him to Portugal, where Lopes had a wife and family and, perhaps, a forgiving king.
14 years earlier, João da Nova had discovered an unknown island in the south Atlantic Ocean. The island did not have the makings of a natural harbour, but it was fertile and the climate was pleasant. There was fresh water, fruits and firewood. It was a perfect place for ships homeward bound from the Indies to stop and take in supplies. The island was colonised, but the Portuguese managed to keep its existence a secret for 80 years. The day on which the island was first sighted was, according to the calendar of the time, Saint Helena's day, and da Nova accordingly christened it "Saint Helena".
On the voyage home to Portugal, Fernão Lopes had begun to doubt his chances in the old country. Would his wife really accept a dishonoured, crippled man? Would the king have him punished? When the ship reached St Helena, and the crew went ashore for supplies, Lopes hid in the forest. A group of men was sent to search for him, but were forced to return without him. The ship set sail for Lisbon leaving Lopes alone on St Helena. He became the first resident of what is now the British island of Saint Helena.
Survival on the uninhabited island was not easy, despite the abundance of water, edible plants and fruits. But his shipmates left valuable gifts - a barrel of biscuits, pieces of dried meat, salted fish, salt and clothes, and most importantly, fire. The fire was zealously tended by Lopes, and he dared not leave his seashore camp until he had found some rocks with which to make his own fire. With his mutilated arms he dug out a cave in the soft volcanic rock, and then he began to explore his new home.
For 10 years Fernão Lopes lived in solitude on his island. Ships came and went, but he kept away. Even so, there was a steady exchange of supplies. The plants that Lopes had sown and tended were sought after by the ships that called at the island. In return he was given chickens, seeds, clothes and tools. His fame had reached Portugal and even king João III was keen to meet this extraordinary man. Lopes' solitude was broken after 10 years, when a young Javanese slave escaped from a ship and went in hiding on the island. This was a companionship that Lopes did not appreciate, however, and the relationship was chilly. The boy therefore decided to show himself when a ship next called at the island. In exchange for amnesty for himself, he offered to show the captain where Lopes lived, and so captain Pero Gomez Teixeira found his famous countryman. Lopes was frightened, he cried and pleaded, but captain Gomez talked to him reassuringly and promised him that no one would hurt him or force him to leave St Helena. All he asked of Lopes was that he would not hide away when the Portuguese ships came to the island, but that he would help them, to the advantage of both parties. Lopes finally agreed to this. Gomez then handed him a letter, stating that every sailor who arrived at St Helena would cooperate with Lopes and would not force him away from the island against his will. The captain then signed the letter on behalf of the king of Portugal.
"Home" to Portugal
From this time Lopes no longer kept hidden. The renewed contact with his countrymen caused him great pain, however. More and more his thoughts dwelled on the crime of treason which he had committed, not only against his king but also against God. He no longer had peace in his soul. In spite of his fear and reluctance he finally decided to accompany a ship back to Portugal, where he would seek pardon for his crimes. He suffered throughout his stay in Lisbon. He stayed in hiding in the captain's house and was sneaked out late at night in order to meet king João III and his queen. The king pardoned his crime against his country and offered Lopes refuge in a monastery. The monks were delighted to have such a celebrated guest, but for Lopes even a monastery was too crowded. He had received the pardon of his king, but he also needed God to forgive him. His serious crime could, according to the rules of the church, only be pardoned by the pope himself. Lopes asked the king for permission to travel to Rome, and received it.
Lopes' crimes were apostasy, having abandoned the true faith, and having taken up arms against it. These crimes were categorised as special, and absolution for them could only be granted by the pope himself or a cardinal acting for him. For those who asked for pardon voluntarily, this possibility existed. At this time it was the custom to hold a ceremony of pardon during Christmas week. A high throne was erected in the church of St Peter's, with the pope seated at the top, and the penitents one by one climbed the steps. In order to hide their remorse-stricken faces, the pope would enfold them in one of his long cloaks. He would then hear their confessions. A great crowd had gathered this Christmas to get a view of the cripple from St Helena. No one could fail to recognise him. Haltingly, after 10 years' silence, Fernão Lopes told his story to the pope and asked for God's forgiveness. After a while he came down the steps, relieved, joyous and without hiding his face. At last he had peace. Later, Lopes was received in audience by the pope, who asked if he could help Lopes to reenter society. Lopes however had only one wish - to return to his island. The pope was understanding. He sent Lopes back to king João III with a letter, asking him to permit Lopes, who was now free from sin, to return to St Helena. The return At his death on St Helena in 1545, Fernão Lopes had spent nearly 20 years on the island. After his return from Europe he was more open and was often to be found on shore when the ships arrived. He received gifts from the sailors, enabling him to grow gourds, pomegranates, oranges and palms. He kept ducks, chickens, pigs and goats, which all eventually ran wild and spread over the island. For the sailors, this made St Helena even more valuable as a stopping point. Today, St Helena is mainly famous for having housed Napoleon during the years 1815-1821. For the 5000 inhabitants Napoleon is no hero, however. Their hero is 'Dom Fernão', the first resident of their island.
Correia, Gaspar (1860).Lendas de India, 2: p.196-197. Lisbon: Academia R. das Siencias.
Clifford, H: The Earliest Exile of St Helena. Blackwood's Magazine, Vol. 173; May 1903: p. 625-633.
Gosse, P: St Helena 1502-1938, p. 4-10.
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