The Neo-romantic School
The new ideas advocated by Nimzowitsch came to be called the "Neo-romantic or Hypermodern School",
or more common, "Hypermodernism". (Tartakower even uses the name "Ultra-Modernisten", and Gustaf Collinj
refers to "The Expressionist School" in Boken om Schack, 1948.)
Other prominent representatives of this school were Breyer, Grünfeld, Réti, Rubinstein and Tartakower.
The latter, whose verbal gift almost equalled his chess talent, coined the term "hypermodern" in his book
Die hypermoderne Schachpartie (1924), being a witty rejoinder to Tarrasch's Die moderne Schachpartie (1912).
However, it would not be right to give a specified "list of members" of the Neo-romantic School, and Nimzowitsch
sometimes critizised his colleagues for certain ideas, but no doubt there was a tendency shared to a certain extent
by a group of players.
Tartakower Rubinstein Maróczy
Nimzowitsch also referred
to Emanuel Lasker and Geza Maróczy as modernists, although they belonged to an
older generation. Lasker, Capablanca, and Aljechin did not explicitly take sides in the theoretical dispute between
the "hypermodernists" and the "pseudo-classicists". They were simply very strong players and did not bother too
much about what constituted a strong move; they just played it. 1 However, the defence introduced by Aljechin,
1.e4 Nf6, was an innovation entirely in the neo-romantic style. Rudolf Spielmann in no way rejected Nimzowitsch's
ideas, but he took a more pragmatic view, expressed in his book Richtig opfern (The Art of Sacrifice in Chess".
Translated by J. Du Mont, G. Bell, 1935) where he emphasizes the importance of intuition and calculated risk taking.
World Champion 1894-1921, a true record. World Champion 1921-27
Wilhelm Steinitz, World Champion 1886-94 (here aged 30)
Steinitz is regarded as a forerunner of what later came to be called the Neo-romantic School.
Steinitz and Lasker, probably at the 1894 World Championship.
1) According to an anecdote, Samuel Reshewsky was once asked how many moves
ahead he used to calculate, and the answer was
"Only one move, but a strong one".