Short CV of Tõnis Kint and somewhat Estonian history!


"Acting President 23rd Dec.1970   -    1st March 1990"




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Curriculum vitae: Tõnis KINT was born on 17th August in 1896 at Paasioja in Viljandimaa county in
southern Estonia, near Suure-Jaani town. He died in Örnsköldsvik in Sweden on 5th Januari 1991.
After ground education he entered Polytechnicum in Riga but was taken to military officer-education to
Tsaritsin (now Volgograd). After graduation in 1917, he was first placed at Moskva then in Petersburg.

In the first worldwar, he was involved at Tjernowitsõi and Koisman towns at the German/Russian
frontline. There he got sick and was commanded to Odessa. He learned about set up of Estonian forces
in Estonia and returned to Estonia. He was enrolled in the Estonian army, that was in a first stage of
formation at Viljandi. Retreating Russian army groups were murdering and luting while retreating.

While German army troops were aproaching, Estonia was declared as a new independant republic
in 1918. He could hear the declaration of independence in Viljandi on the 23rd februari 1918 - a day
before it was officialy announced in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.

Next day, German troops entered Viljandi (Fellin), took the arms from soldiers and and officers.
Officers had to show themselves once a week at the German command point. He worked at
home on the farm Paasioja helping his mother. His father Hans had died in 1900. His mother Mari
had married his fathers brother Mart, who also had died - in januari 1918.

In the autumn in 1918 he returned to Polytechnicum in Riga (Latvia), but when the red sovjet army
threatened to invade Estonia, then he went back to Estonia to Tallinn together with almost all
Estonian students in Riga and was placed on "The Broadtracked Armored Train No. 2",
that was just in formation in Tallinn.

These armoured trains were in the following Estonian Liberation War (1918 - 1920) something like
German "Panzer troops" in the second world war. The liberation of Estonian territory followed.

Some but not all former German farm holders "Landeswehr" and some remainders of German troops ("The Iron
Division" lead by von der Golz), south of Estonia, after the revolution in Germany in 1918, had formed new
aggressive troops and they threatened Estonia from the south. In Juni 1920 German delegates did not show up
after negotatiations and the armoured train No. 2 was sent to meet them and investigate why they had not
appeared. - Then suddenly hidden German troops attacked the train from a low young pinewood growing
besides the railway. The attacking troops were cut down by machinegun fire from the train. - This was
the opening of the short but intense war with the German Landeswehr and the "Iron Division" lead
by von der Golz, which ended with complete disaster for Landeswehr and the German "Iron Division".

The severe war with sovjet union ended with peace treaty on the 2:nd February 1920 in Tartu in Estonia,
where the sovjet union declared, that they had no future interests whatsoever in Estonia.

Tõnis Kint had advanced to the commander in duty for "The Broadtracked Armored Train No.2." at
the end of the war.

He left army, worked at home farm and then began to study agriculture at the Univerity in Tartu.
- When he had graduated in 1924, he went to Copenhagen Agriculture University for further studies.
In 1925 he visited Sweden, Norway and Finland to study their agricultural bookkeeping methods.

From 1925 he worked with building up the agrarial bookkeping in farms and production statistics
in Estonia. In 1938 he was appointed to director for the institute "Chamber of Agriculture"
(Põllutöökoda), that through regional consultants advised farmers of better farming methods
and related subjects.

In 1936 he was elected to Estonian Parliament (Rahvusnõukogu) /one of 80 elected/. In 1938 he
was elected to new parliament - Rahvusvolikogu, where he led the comission for agriculture.

In 1940, when sovjet troops had entered Estonia, according to secret Molotov-Ribbentrop pact additions,
and tried to establish a puppit parliament of communistic elements, he got an order from the
Estonian President K. Päts to organize counter candidates to the communists in the election.
- The time to put up counter candidates had been reduced to only 3 and a half day, which was against
the legally valid law. - But the counter candidates were still put up and he himself too
as one of them. They all were forcibly removed by different "excuses" and threats as
"enemies to the people" by the communistic estonian puppit regime. Few of the counter candidates
escaped living from the following sovjet russian methodical annihilation of them.

These decoy elections took place on 14th and 15th July in 1940. - In the night between 13th and
14th June 1941 began the planned systematic sovjetic annihilation of Estonian people through
deportations to Siberia. - Tõnis Kint escaped by lucky circumstancies. Shortly afterwards the war
between Germany and Sovjet Union broke out and the German troops liberated Estonia from sovjet
occupation. Often with help of Estonians who had escaped sovjet deportation and terror. They
formed troops in woods (metsavennad) and often liberated new territory before regular German
troops arrived. - It happened e.g. near Saku, where my mother with two children (my brother
and I myself) were hiding.

During the German ocupation Tõnis Kint worked a short time in government organisation
and then at his farm Paasioja.

In September 1944 he managed to escape the advancing red army in a small motorboat across over
the Baltic Sea to Sweden. In 1945 he worked at the Swedish Agricultural Univerity
at Ultuna, near Uppsala and was involved with the building of new organisations as "Eesti
Agronoomide Selts Rootsis" (Estonian Agronomists in Sweden), whos chairman he was and later
"Honorary Chairman". He participated in and was himself organizing escaped estonians in Sweden.
He also was the chairman of "Põllumeeste Kogud" - a conservative agrarian party, that had been
the greatest political party once in independant Estonia.

Between 1949 - 1951 he worked as agronomist in Stochholm county and then to 1975 in Stockholm
at LRF ("Lantbrukarnas Riksförbund - Driftsbyrå") and "Jordbrukets Utredingsinstitut" - private
Swedish agricultural organisations.

"Vabade Eestlaste Põllumajandusliit" - VEPL- "Agricultural Union of Free Estonians" was
formed in 1950 and as a member of its directorate he participated for more than 20 years in annual
meetings of CEA (Confederation Europénne d'Agriculture) in different countries in Europa. VEPL was
taken as permanent member of CEA in 1956 and it happened due to the activity of Tõnis Kint.

Estonian National Council "ERN" (Rahvusnõukogu) was formed in 1947 in Stockholm, Sweden.
Tõnis Kint was its chairman in 5 years between 1971 and 1975. He was editor-in-chief for
the Estonian newspaper "Teataja" 1957 in Stockholm.

On the 12th January in 1953 Estonian Government in exile was proclaimed in Oslo, Norway by
August Rei, earlier Estonian Envoy in Moskva and once Head of State in Estonia, now the oldest
government member. Tõnis Kint was appointed by August Rei "Minister of Agriculture" (Põllutööminister)
and he was also put "in the duties of Minister of War" (Sõjaministri kohuste täitja)

in this government.

Between the 12th January 1953 and 1 March 1964 he was "The Deputy Prime Minister"
in case J. Sikkar of any reason would not be able to perform his duties as Prime Minister.

In April 1963, after the death of August Rei, he was appointed "Deputy Prime Minister"
and " War Minister
" by Aleksander Warma (Acting President)

From 23rd December in 1970 to 1st March in 1990 he was "Prime Minister in the duties of
the President in the Estonian Republic
"(Acting President) ["Statsminister med
Presidentens befogenheter"] - He has been on this, the highest position, in Estonia longer than
anyone else ever has been in known historical time in Estonia.


He died in northern Sweden in Örnsköldsvik on 5th January 1991, in the age of
nearly 95 years and is berried on "Skogskyrkogården" in Stockholm.

Already in 1938 he was honored by the Estonian government with a red cross medal as "the Chairman
of the Chamber of Agriculture". He was honorary member of "Sällskapet för Landsbygdsutvecling"
- The Society for Development of Countryside - in Sweden.

In 1983 cavalier of The Rebirth of Poland order (Order Odrozonia Polski).




He has published in Estonian language besides publications connected with his profession:
"Mälestuskilde" (Eesti Agronoomide Selts Rootsis, Toimetis nr. 5, Uppsala 1986/64 pages).

With Edwin Reinvaldt: "Laiarööpmeline Soomusrong No. 2 Vabadussõjas"
(Välis Eesti & EMP, Lund 1972/276 lhk.). [Broadtracked Armoured Train No.2 in the Estonian
Liberation War (in 1918-20), 276 pages].

In 1972 in Stocholm: "Meie rahvuspoliitika, hoiak, võitlussihid ja vahendid." Published by
Estonian National Council (Eesti Rahvusnõukogu - ERN) [6 pages].

In Riga: "Die Entwicklung und der gegenwärtige Stand des landwirtschaftlichen Beratungswesens
in Finland, Estland Lettland und Litauen.
" (Riga 1939, Izdevusi Latviljas Agronomu bledriba
/16 pages).




From the 100 year memorial conference in Olustvere castle in 1996.


Published in: "Agraarteadus" - Journal of Agriculturual Science, VII 4 1996, Tartu.

J. Lepajõe: "The youth and activities of Tõnis Kint in Estonia up to autumn of 1944."
Ü. Oll, K. Annuk: "The activities of Tõnis Kint after leaving Estonia."
M. Karelson: "Chamber of Agriculture in the Republic of Estonia."






Further reading about T.Kint: Link - To a photo of T. Kint on the pages of the Acting President of Estonian Republic.

Link - To a short biography of T. Kint (in estonian language).




Link - Spanish view of Estonian governments in last decades.


Link - "Museum of Communism FAQ"
      [Link to several interesting pages!]


Link - "R.J. Rummel's page about greatest killings by communistic regimes during last century"
      [Link to communist democide!]


Link - Actual link to communist crimes.
      [Add to the link what You know!]





Some bibliographical articles about Tõnis Kint in:

Tõotan ustavaks jääda... EESTI VABARIIGI valitsus 1940-1944
by Mart Orav and Enn Nõu, Eesti Kirjanduse Selts, 2004
[ISBN 9985-9544-0-8], 1720 pages.

This book in Estonian contains several memoranda by the Estonian Government in exile
in Eglish to several other governments and to United Nations.

It contains a chapter of 93 pages about the Estonian Foreign Policy in English and partly
in German languages mostly by the Acting Estonian President and Prime Minister, Tõnis Kint,
and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, A. Koern, two men, who mainly developed and executed
the Estonian Foreign Policy during more than four decades, and some others too.


Men of Achievements 1977. International Biographical Centre, Volume 4, Cambridge England.
Fourth Edition (ISBN 0 900332 43 3)

The International Register of Profiles. Edition IV/V Cambridge England, 1981 Melrose Press Ltd.

Five Thousand Personalities of The World. The American Biographical Institute INC.
Raleigh, North Carolina 1986 (ISBN Number 0-934544-30-1) [Library of Congress Catalog
Card Number 83-73598]







To the beginning of this side / Ingliskeelse lehekülje algusesse!


Ülenduskäskkiri 28. novembril 1978 a. [ärakiri]


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Uppsala Eesti Organisatsioonid [Estonian Organisations in Uppsala, Sweden]

( Copyright © 21.6. 2012, Oole Kint.)